To manage the new offence of Strangulation and Suffocation which came into force on 7th June 2022, there are a variety of resources on the Institute For Addressing Strangulation’s website, and below.

We have made a recording of the 28th and 29th June 22 training event on the New Offence of Strangulation and Suffocation. If you would like access to it and/or if you are interested in future courses please email

Most of these resources refer to strangulation as it occurs more frequently and it is this that is assessed in much of the research referred to here. However some of the behaviours and results for suffocation can be similar, so the two should be considered seriously and responded to appropriately. Some staff working in this area use the term ‘strangulation’ informally to cover both strangulations and suffocations.

We want to do all we can to tackle this violence and prevent it happening so if you have any resources you’d like to share please get in touch and if you have any feedback on these please contact

If you have facilities to do any translations of (v) in particular, the leaflet for someone who has been strangled or suffocated then please do get it translated and share the results with us.

  1. 12 Key Points on Non-Fatal Strangulation (NFS) for all who likely to encounter NFS. There is also a ten minute introductory video done in the USA which clearly sets out the dangers of NFS.
  2. NFS background information (Appendix 2).
  3. First-responders checklist (Appendix 3) NB In New Zealand and San Diego in the USA the police have an app on their phones to guide them through what questions to ask and what to record. Appendix 3a is a suggested Police investigative worksheet adapted from one used in the USA.
  4. More information : a useful comprehensive (over 200 pages) document on all aspects of investigation and prosecuting from California District Attorney’s Office 2020 report on Investigation and Prosecution of Strangulation Cases (Appendix 4), also at:
  5. Leaflets to give to people who have been strangled/suffocated (Appendix 5). There is also more information on Information for victims of strangulation in a booklet on the website
  6. In-person training (Appendix 6 provides sample slides).
  7. e-learning module on NFS – the American Institute of Strangulation website has one. (some key messages from it are in appendix 7
  8. Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine guidance on NFS (Appendix 9).
  9. Diagram of signs and symptoms as a png document and as a word document also attached.
  10. From the USA an emergency nurses topic brief is available at:
  11. Recognition of Strangulation and Suffocation as a priority public health issue
  12. A three page summary of research in this area
  13. An Infographic used by North Wales Police is also attached
We gratefully acknowledge Alliance for HOPE International for allowing us to reproduce parts of their documents. The documents were accessed through the online Resource Library hosted by the Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention. Certain documents and products were supported in part with funding from the Office on Violence Against Women in the U.S. Department of Justice. Their website and a portion of the documents in this Resource Library are supported in part by Grants No.2014-TA-AX-K008 and No.2016-TA-AX-K067 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women.