Strangulation and Suffocation: useful resources

Please find below a variety of resources which organisations may want to use in preparing for the new offence of Strangulation and Suffocation which will come into force by May 2022.

We want to do all we can to tackle this violence and prevent it happening so if you have any resources you’d like to share please get in touch and if you have any feedback on these please contact

If you have facilities to do any translations of the (v) in particular, the leaflet for someone who has been strangled or suffocated then please do get it translated and share the results with us.

  1. 12 Key Points on Non-Fatal Strangulation and Suffocation (NFS) for all police staff likely to encounter NFS (Appendix 1). There is also a ten minute introductory video done in the USA which clearly sets out the dangers of NFS:
  1. NFS background information (Appendix 2).

  2. First-responders checklist (Appendix 3) NB In New Zealand and San Diego in the USA the police have an app on their phones to guide them through what questions to ask and what to record. Appendix 3b is the Police form: Strangulation/Suffocation Investigative worksheet developed in the USA. Page 1 has highlighted on it in blue the medical information which is covered in the first responders checklist (appendix 3) by ‘difficulty breathing’, ‘lost consciousness’ and ‘clearing throat’. Page 2 items are covered in the first responders checklist except the two items highlighted in yellow and marked *.

  3. More information : a useful comprehensive (over 200 pages) document on all aspects of investigation and prosecuting from California District Attorney’s Office 2020 report on Investigation and Prosecution of Strangulation Cases (Appendix 4), also at:  

  4. Leaflet to give to people who have been strangled/suffocated (Appendix 5).

  5. In-person training (Appendix 6 provides sample slides).

  6. e-learning module on NFS - the American Institute of Strangulation website has one. (some key messages from it are in appendix 7);

  7. Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine guidance on NFS (Appendix 9).

  8. Diagram of signs and symptoms as a png document and as a word document also attached.

  9. From the USA an emergency nurses topic brief is available at:

  10. Recognition of Strangulation and Suffocation as a priority public health issue
We gratefully acknowledge Alliance for HOPE International for allowing us to reproduce parts of their documents. The documents were accessed through the online Resource Library hosted by the Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention. Certain documents and products were supported in part with funding from the Office on Violence Against Women in the U.S. Department of Justice. Their website and a portion of the documents in this Resource Library are supported in part by Grants No.2014-TA-AX-K008 and No.2016-TA-AX-K067 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women.

Stand up to Domestic Abuse 2019